Have a new deck project in mind? Building a deck is a very exciting home improvement that not only adds value to your home, but it also makes for an enjoyable outdoor area. There can be more than what you'd expect when building and designing a new deck. Below is what you should expect for your decking project. Let's start tackling the basics for your new outdoor focal point.
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First, we'll need to plan your new deck. Planning is just as important, or even more important than building and design, because, let's face it, you'll be seeing it every day.
If you can imaging all the ways you want to use your deck, the design elements will fall into place much easier. Most design elements will be based on your specific preferences.
More than likely, you're only going to have one or two locations for your deck. Believe it or not, you are going to have more choices than you think within that limit. Want to add a door or privacy screen? What about building a walkway? Try and visualize your new deck and incorporate these choices.
Most people do not factor in area climate when deciding on the location of the deck. Coolest locations tend to be on the north-side, while southern or western orientations may become too hot during summer months. Backyard trees and overhead screens can take care of the heat if southern or western orientations are a must. Also, try and locate your deck where the house will provide protection against wind, and minimize traffic noise if you're around a busy street. Also, note privacy considerations if you plan to build a hot tub or swimming pool into your decking plans. Your guests will enjoy the privacy also.
Your legal checklist
If you want to have a slightly larger deck for the same price, size your deck in 2 or 4' increments. Since you have to purchase standard lumber lengths, you'd be wasting some material. The cost difference between a smaller deck and one that's the perfect fit for your home is very little.
Technically, you can build any size deck you want. Just make sure it's within legal limits. However, the deck can look out of place if it's too small or large. You can always break up a larger deck into smaller sections on multiple levels if you feel your deck is too big.
The best thing to do before you start building is to test the size of your dream deck. With 4' stakes, drive them into each corner of where you picture your deck would be. Then you can tie rope around where the height of the railings would set. You can even arrange lawn furniture and other accessories to get a better picture of how your outdoor space will work.
Shape and Pattern
Most decks are rectangles in shape, but you can really dress up a house with simple changes, such as a different angled corner or a 45-degree decking pattern. You can even wrap a deck around the corner of your house, or integrate an overhead screen for shade. More complicated decks can be a bit more difficult to build and require more materials.
All decks should come within 2" of the bottom of the house door to which the deck is accessed. If you have a sloped ground, you may want to move along the slope and build your deck in multiple levels. Just make sure if your deck is more than 4' off the ground, brace your posts to prevent swaying.
If you want a spa or hot tub to be set on the deck, make sure the structure can support it. Reinforce the structure to not only be able to support the spa or hot tub, but the weight of the water also. You can always set it directly on concrete and build the decking around the area. Any area that you have to build around, make sure you leave about 1/4" so that the decking can contract and expand with seasonal and moisture changes. If you're building around trees, give yourself about 3" on all sides to allow the tree to grow without issues.
With the amount of options that are available, this is where you get to really test your creativity. Do you want posts fastened that run all the way to the ground? What about along the sides of the rim joists? You can even attach railings to the decking itself. After you decide that, materials are next. Railings can include wood, metal or even rope. As long as it satisfies structural requirements, and insures safety, it's good to use. The durability of your railing is also very important and will affect the design. All railing ends should be covered or cut at an angle. This will help them shed water and minimize the wood splitting.
Steps and Stairs
Steps and stairs will also have to be regulated by building codes. A general rule when installing steps and stairs is that they should be at least 36 - 48" wide. The vertical distance between steps should be no more than 7.5" with the width of the tread being at least 10". A 7" riser with a 10.5" tread is a common combination for the slope not to be too steep. Make sure you also check the building codes for how the steps or stairs should be supported or attached, and if you require a railing or not.
The materials you use must stand up to all sorts of variables. From decay to insect damage, seasonal changes and traffic, your deck should withstand each with the right materials. Lumber for standard construction, such as fir, pine or spruce can be treated to protect your deck from rot, but under extreme weather conditions or even sunlight, the deck materials won't hold up.
If you want a much better durable deck, use a pressure-treated pine redwood or cedar. These are the least expensive and can be stained to almost any color you choose. Redwood and cedar will resist splintering the best, as they are soft and fine-grained woods. The heartwood portion of redwood or cedar (the reddish colored portion of the redwood or the dark brown/orange part of the cedar) is resistant to decay. Sapwood in a lighter color will decay just as quickly as spruce or even pine.